By J. R. Averill
In contemporary years, very much has been written relating to aggression; one other e-book at the similar subject may appear superfluous at present. in spite of the fact that, the current quantity isn't really just-or even primarily-about aggres sion. it truly is, relatively, a booklet on anger. Anger and aggression are heavily comparable phenomena, and it isn't attainable to debate one with out the opposite. but, no longer all anger is competitive, nor can all aggression be attributed to anger. for that reason, a bit of diverse issues observe to every. much more importantly, the kind of theoretical generalizations you will make differs based upon even if the first concentration is on anger or aggression. the current quantity is subtitled "an essay on emotion." this means that the generalizations to be drawn have extra to do with emotional responses (e.g., grief, love, envy, etc.) than with a number of varieties of aggression (e.g., riots, warfare, crimes of violence, etc.). said a little otherwise, anger is right here getting used as a paradigm case for the examine of emotion, now not for the learn of aggression.
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Extra info for Anger and Aggression: An Essay on Emotion
The Experience and Expression of Emotion 21 In order to answer this question we must consider three closely related issues: (a) the monitoring of behavior; (b) feeling rules; and (c) emotional meanings. The first issue has to do with what is experienced; the second with the ways in which experience is informed or structured; and the third with the meaning of experience in relation to broader systems of behavior. The monitoring of behavior. Humans and infrahuman animals continually monitor their behavior (including internal bodily changes) in relationship to situational cues.
In this respect, the orientation of the present analysis is perhaps closer to that of Skinner and the social-learning theorists. In Chapters 9 and 10 we will see that anger can be expressed in an indefinite variety of ways-physical attack, withdrawal, verbal abuse, symbolic gestures, the denial of some benefit, crying, raising one's voice, talking things over with or without hostility, telling a third party, and many other ways besides. In fact, it is difficult to say what a typical expression of anger is.
Even when we are dealing with more narrowly defined systems, such as mating behavior, generalization from one species to another can be made only on the basis of a detailed knowledge of the specific responses involved (Beach, 1976). And what is true of biological systems is even more true of emotional syndromes (subsystems), which are based on sociocultural and psychological, as well as on biological, systems of behavior. But more of that shortly. An indefinite number of biological systems can be identified, depending upon the purpose of the investigator and the level of generality desired.
Anger and Aggression: An Essay on Emotion by J. R. Averill