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This section is devoted to that objective. The decibel was originally developed in the telephone industry to describe the effect of noise in telephone circuits . The ear tends to hear logarithmically so describing the effect of noise in dB is natural. To begin the discussion, consider the ampliﬁer circuit shown in Fig. 6. A source consisting of an open-circuit voltage VS and source resistance RS delivers a signal to an ampliﬁer whose load is represented by RL . 6 An illustration of the deﬁnition and use of the decibel (dB).
Gain is unchanged. This makes the computation of powers in a system simple, since outputs of signal sources are usually rated in terms of powers (more about this later) and are typically given in dBm. For the example given in Fig. 7, Pout dBm ¼ 60 dB þ À30 dBm. Also, Pout dBmw ¼ 60 dB þ 0 dBmW ¼ 60 dBmW. So the products of transfer functions become sums when the transfer functions are expressed in dB. The same holds true when Rin ¼ RL in Fig. 6 and the transfer function is a ratio of two voltages or two currents, or a ratio of a voltage and a current.
Electromagnetic phenomena are truly a distributedparameter process in that the properties of the structure such as capacitance and inductance are, in reality, distributed throughout space rather than being lumped at discrete points. When we construct lumped-parameter electric circuit models, we are ignoring the distributed nature of the electromagnetic ﬁelds. For example, consider a lumped-circuit element such as a resistor and its associated connection leads as shown in Fig. 4. When using lumped-circuit models, we are in effect saying that the connection leads of the elements are of no consequence and their effects may be ignored.
an introduction to magnetohydrodinamics by Davidson