New PDF release: AIDS Testing: Methodology and Management Issues

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By Gerald Schochetman (auth.), Gerald Schochetman Ph.D., J. Richard George Ph.D. (eds.)

ISBN-10: 1468404679

ISBN-13: 9781468404678

ISBN-10: 1468405144

ISBN-13: 9781468405149

ISBN-10: 1468405160

ISBN-13: 9781468405163

Given the ongoing excessive point of outrage between future health pros and most people approximately concerns relating to AIDS, this quantity on trying out for AIDS and similar viruses is intensely well timed. The booklet has been written via specialists within the quarter of AIDS checking out, a lot of whom are on the facilities for illness regulate. The publication contains numerous chapters which examine the various laboratory exams to be had for detecting the AIDS virus (HIV). It additionally addresses such issues as moral concerns in AIDS checking out, HIV an infection in teenagers, trying out for different human viruses on the topic of HIV, security practices in HIV-testing laboratories, and dealing with occupational publicity to HIV. The booklet is meant for public overall healthiness officers occupied with HIV trying out, health center directors and medical laboratory administrators chargeable for developing HIV checking out courses, and physicians taken with trying out for AIDS.

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27 4. Immunologic Aspects of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection 37 Major Components of the Immune System in HIV-1 Infection CD4 T Cells and CD4/CD8 Ratio A low ratio of CD4 to CD8 T cells has been a characteristic and consistent observation since the earliest reports of AIDS. Inverted ratios result from a decrease in the absolute number of CD4 T cells and a variable number (increase, normal, or decrease) of CD8 T cells. 28 The infectivity of HIV-1 for CD4 T cells predicts that numerical depletion of CD4 T cells would reflect the primary lesion more accurately than CD41 CD8 ratio.

18 Infectivity for some CD4-negative cell lines has also been reported. Mechanisms of CD4 T-Cell Depletion The precise mechanism by which HIV -1 infection causes CD4 cell death remains obscure. Reasonable hypotheses derived from other viral systems include the following. Massive budding of virus from the membrane results in cell lysis. Massive viral replication commandeers cellular transcriptional/translational machinery required for maintenance of cellular integrity. Viral infcction somehow initiates normal cellular processes that result in terminal differentiation and senescence, the so-called programmed cell death that is associated with DNA fragmentation (apotosis).

This result implies that routine use of a screening test for HIV antigen would not increase the safety of the blood supply. The acute phase of HIV infection is commonly followed by a long period (up to 10 years or more) of low-level viremia and chronic subacute infection. Disease symptoms are usually mild or unapparent during this period. Viral antigen or cell-free virus can only be intermittently detected in the circulation, and high titers of antibodies to the viral env, gag, and pol proteins are usually present in the patient's serum or plasma, saliva, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).

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AIDS Testing: Methodology and Management Issues by Gerald Schochetman (auth.), Gerald Schochetman Ph.D., J. Richard George Ph.D. (eds.)

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