By Petr Carsky, Miroslav Urban
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Additional resources for Ab Initio Calculations: Methods and Applications in Chemistry
The integrity of the dimeric form of the hormone is essential for receptor-binding activity. The individual subunits do not bind to the receptor and, therefore, are devoid of biological activity. The function of these hormones is mediated by the stimulation of cyclic-adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) accumulation and steroidogenesis. The role of carbohydrate in the biological function of hCG, LH, TSH has been studied by their deglycosylation, followed by the evaluation of the deglycosylated analogues for their biological function.
The peptide theory for protein structure was proposed by Hofmeister and Fischer at the turn of the century. It was not until 50 years later that the hypothesis was proved correct by the determination of the primary structure of insulin by Sanger, a monumental achievement, considering the limited number of techniques available for the determination of protein structure at that time. Since the elucidation of insulin structure, a large number of new reagents for structural studies, including phenylisothiocyanate by Edman and a host of highly specific exo- and endoproteases, have been discovered.
The confusion still existed, however, over whether or not the carbohydrates were contaminants or integral components of proteins. One of the first proteins on which detailed structural analysis was carried out, was ovalbumin. Ovalbumin was selected because it had been previously crystallized by Hofmeister (1890) and thus could be obtained in a homogeneous form. With the preparation of a highly pure glycopeptide by controlled acid hydrolysis of Page 4 ovalbumin by Neuberger in the late 1930s, the question of the carbohydrate as an integral component of proteins was settled once and for all .
Ab Initio Calculations: Methods and Applications in Chemistry by Petr Carsky, Miroslav Urban